What is an Argument?

An Argument is a formal and rational presentation of premises given to support a particular conclusion to persuade others to accept one’s claims o....
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Initially, what would come to any individual's mind before understanding what an argument is, is that an argument is a situation where two or more people are holding two different views and are in a heated quarrel to oppress each other emotionally, Psychological or even Physically. Which is not arguing at all.

An Argument is a formal and rational presentation of premises given to support a particular conclusion to persuade others to accept one’s claims or position.

The 2 Main Types of Arguments

Inductive Arguments

These are the arguments that start with a particular observation to draw a general conclusion. They mostly used this type of argumentation in science.

For example,

Premise: There has been poor food security in Zambia from 2016 to 2021

Conclusion: Therefore, there will be poor food security in Zambia in 2022.

 

Deductive Arguments

This is a type of argument that starts with general facts that aim to prove a particular conclusion. These types of Argumentations are mostly in Philosophy and mathematics, For example,

Premise 1: All democratic countries have a president

Premise 2: Zambia is a democratic country

Conclusion: Therefore, Zambia has a president



Other Types of Arguments Include

The Toulmin argument: is a sort of argument that is broken down into several elements, such as claim, reasons, and proof, so that one may judge how effectively the various parts fit together.

Rogerian argument: is used to discover the best potential solution to a problem based on all parties' interests and needs.

An evaluation argument: is one that is used to establish if something is "good" or "bad."

A causal argument: is one that is used to persuade someone or a group of people that one thing caused another.

A proposal argument: is one in which an individual suggests a specific resolution to a problem.

The classic Western argument: is a type of argument which aims to persuade a group of people that an argument is valid.

Rebuttal argument: is a type of argument that aims to refute a notion or opinion that has existed up to this point.

A narrative argument: is one in which a person makes a point by narrating a story that highlights a point directly relevant to the argument.

If you would to learn more about these types of Arguments click here

 

The Importance of Arguments

·       They are utilized in negotiations.

·       They are used to figure out what the optimal solution is for a problem.

·       They are used to figuring out the extent of the truth.

·       They are used to finding a solution to a problem.

·       They are used to making a judgment.

·       They are used to justifying or explain a viewpoint or particular behaviour.

·       They are used to conveying your point of view.

 

How To Win an Argument?

1.    Re-examine what victory in an argument is. Win an argument is not about humiliating your opponent no, but it’s about getting your opponent to accept and act on what your argument is persuading or convincing them.

2.    Don’t focus on interpersonal relationships, argue objectively address the problem, not the individual character.

3.    Know your opponent and understand what your opponent wants and acknowledge what is positive in their argument.

4.    Do a lot of research before you engage yourself in a particular argument, for example, your argument is based on sexual harassment in Zambia you should know all the current statistics to do with sexual harassment in Zambia.

5.    Do not get emotional when the other party gets upset emotions do not validate points stay calm.

6.    When one attacks you with a general statement demand for a specific example, for example, your opponent says political parties in Zambia are corrupt counter this by asking which ones exactly.

7.    Point out the conditions in which you would agree with your opponent because it might not always be that their argument is entirely false nor can yours be entirely true no.

8.    Sometimes losing is winning, accepting defeat and learning some things from the argument to win, also Knowledge wise.

 

 

 

 

Adapted from:

Indeed, Editorial Team (2021) 8 Types of Arguments and Their Importance. Indeed. Retrieved here.

Hanna (2017) Types of Arguments [Video]. YouTube. URL here.

Charisma on Command. (2018). 5 Foolproof Ways to Win Any Argument [Video]. YouTube. URL here.

Charisma on Command. (2019). 7 Psychological Tricks to Win Any Argument [Video]. YouTube. URL here.

 

 

Law Student, The University of Zambia

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